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The Technology

RAW MATERIALS

The raw materials used in the process of brewing beer are malt, unmalted cereals, hops, yeast and water. The water used in production is water taken from the Nemira Mountains of the Uz Valley dam.

MANUFACTURING OF WORT FROM MALT

A. GRAIN MILLING Grinding cereals is done by using a wet mill. Malt grinding is a technological operation and is performed in order to allow the malt enzymes to dissolve. Dissolution takes place in the saccharification - mash. The grinding must be carried out in such a way that the shells are not ruptured. Only in these conditions the natural filter layer becomes loose and a gravitational flow of the wort can be achieved; also the mash can be washed easier and faster. At the same time it is desirable that the core farinaceous grain or malt is processed by grinding, into a fine flour. Both requirements can be achieved by using a quality malt. B. LEAVEN - SACCHARIFICATION The grist is mixed with water in the boiler mash; the result is a homogeneous mixture called leaven. The vessel is equipped with a stirrer and a heating mantle. Leaven and saccharification is the operation in which the disaggregation of proteins into amino acids occurs, the conversion of the starch into maltose and dextrin under the action of the enzymes formed during the germination of barley. It does so by gradually heating the mash, according to a diagram, which differs depending on the beer that we want to make. At this stage of the process, proteins, hemicelluloses, poly-phenols and phosphor undergo the most important changes.  All these substances will be necessary in the yeast nutrient substrate fermentation stage. C. FILTERING At the end of the leaven it is necessary to separate the liquid component and thus obtain wort malt. The resulting solid component is called marc (spent grain) and it's used as animal food. Filtering the mash is done in a vessel equipped with a rotary knife (refining wain), with which a filtering pad is formed. D. WORT BOILING Wort obtained by filtering the mash boils for 60-90 minutes. To get the bitter taste and aroma, hops are added in different amounts, depending on the recipe. Dosing hops is done to create a balance between bitterness and aroma. During wort boiling the following processes take place: - extraction and transformation of bitterness , aroma and polyphenolic substances from hop; - completion of the chemical composition of the wort by inactivating enzymes; - sterilizing the wort; - evaporation of excess water and extract concentration to achieve the beer's specifications; - formation of reducing substances and color; - removal of sulfur substances; - clotting substances nitrogen and protein-polyphenol complexes and enhancing the natural stabilization of future beers. E. WORT RINSING The wort boiled with hops contains hop mash and suspended precipitates formed during the boiling process (hot trub or coarse trub). Hot Trub separates by sedimentation through a hydrodynamic separation process in a vessel called Whirlpool, at its base, and is collected separately. F. COOLING AND AERATION Cooling the wort and aeration is an operation that have the following purposes: - reducing the temperature of the wort to a temperature that will achieve seeding with yeast for fermentation; - forming the cold trub (protein-polyphenol complex formed which precipitates during the cooling wort). Sterile air is injected in the cool wort pipe, this air will provide oxygen needed for yeast multiplication in the fermentation process.

FERMENTATION

Fermentation in the brewing industry has the purpose of converting beer from the wort, converting glucides (maltose) into alcohol and carbon dioxide as main products and a range of fermentation products that contribute to the flavor and aroma of the finished beer. In order to carry out the fermentation process, the dosing of a quantity of yeast in wort (cooled and aired) is necessary. Fermentation takes place in two phases: - main or primary fermentation; - secondary fermentation (aging). During the primary fermentation, a transformation of the fermentable extract into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide occurs. During the secondary phase the fermentation of the extract, beer clarification, saturation with carbon dioxide and finalization of taste and flavor takes place. A. PRIMARY FERMENTATION Once the wort is cooled, aerated and seeded, it is pumped into the cylinder-conical tanks. Tanks are placed in a special room called fermentation section. During fermentation the yeast cells must assimilate sugars, amino acids, lipids, minerals, oxygen and use them to grow and multiply. As a result of the metabolic activity of the yeast simple sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide is formed along with a number of substances for adding the specific taste and aroma of beer. When the fermentation ends, the yeast is harvested and separated in storage tanks. Harvested yeast, after microbiological analysis, is used in the next cycle of fermentation. B. BEER AGING During the secondary fermentation the following changes occur: - continuation of the beer fermentation; - saturation of beer with carbon dioxide; - beer clarifying; - beer maturation; - finishing taste and aroma. Primary and secondary fermentation takes place in the same vertical, cylinder-conical tanks.

BEER FILTRATION

Upon completion of the fermentation process, finished beer is filtered using filter candles. The yeast cells are removed together with the remaining substances in suspension which cause its disorder. Filtration based on the kieselgur principle consists of forming a filter layer of material through which the unfiltered beer passes.

BEER BOTTLING

A. Bottling beer in kegs - before bottling the beer is pasteurized in a flash pasteurizer. The keg barrels are washed and sterilized, to meet internal standards of hygiene and food safety. By doing this the beer is bottled in kegs perfectly clean and in a sterile environment. The keg is filled with carbon dioxide, this is done to protect against foaming and oxidation. Beer filling is an izobaric process. Finally, the barrels are verified quantitatively and qualitatively. Quality control of packaging, of the finished product and hygiene is performed continuously in each stage. B. BEER BOTTLES - bottles returned by customers are removed from the shuttle automatically by a robot. To ensure product quality of bottled beer, we need to remove debris and impurities. The bottles are to be washed and disinfected; this is done by a washing machine following a sanitation procedure. Before filling, washed and disinfected bottles, are also inspected to eliminate any possibility of non-compliance. Filling with beer is done using a izobaric process, under CO2 pressure. The filler machine automatically performs the filling, stapling and checking the bottles of beer, ensuring optimum hygiene. Bottled beer is pasteurized in the bottle, in a tunnel pasteurizer and then a conveyor takes the bottles to a labeling machine. Meanwhile, the empty crates are also washed. At the end, the bottles are places in the empty crates by a robot and the final merchandise is ready to go to the final consumer. Quality control of packaging, finished product and hygiene is performed continuously on each stage separately. C. PET BOTTLING - preforms are driven in blowing machine, where under temperature and pressure the PET bottle is made. PET bottles are taken by air conveyor and directed to the filler, where they are washed, filled in pillow dioxide carbon and cap sealed. All these operations occur automatically and in maximum hygienic conditions to respect internal quality standards. Prior to be introduced in the PET bottles, beer is pasteurized in a flash pasteurizer. PET bottles are labeled, then packed to be ready for delivery. Throughout the process, both product quality and packaging are monitored for hygiene in accordance with international standards. D. CAN BOTTLING - to ensure product quality, cans are disinfected before filling, according to internal cleaning procedures. Filling is done izobaric under carbon dioxide pressure. Filler is the machine that automatically performs the filling, capping and checking the beer level. Bottled beer is pasteurized in tunnel pasteurizer and then cans are driven by a conveyor to a packing machine. Quality control of packaging, finished product and hygiene is performed continuously on each stage separately.